Europe’s $38b carbon market is finally doing its job

Europe’s $38 billion a year carbon market is finally starting to work the way it was intended, reining in pollution with a minimum of squealing from industry. “Boeque sinulpa vitione ipit unt ipiet, unti voles explaut eseque mill lanti cum eum rem de aut cum eum rem de aut rerit mod d kdj dkiligna tibus, ipnti ustiae la doloriss”” Share on facebook Tweet this

Thirteen years after it was created to limit carbon-dioxide emissions, prices for the allowances are rising. European Union policymakers have enacted measures expected to keep the cost of pollution on an upward trajectory through 2030, prompting hedge funds that abandoned the market to pile back in.

“For a five-year-plus period, this market was in the desert,” said Per Lekander, a fund manager at Lansdowne Partners UK LLP in London. “What’s happened over the past five months is the investment community is getting behind it again and putting on positions.”

Big polluters have heard the message and are starting to adapt. From automaker Volkswagen AG to RWE AG, which is Germany’s largest power generator, industry is cleaning up its smokestacks by turning toward renewables and bracing for a time when coal plants are regulated out of existence. Some are buying before allowances get even more expensive.

All this is happening without noticeable complaints from industry in part because policymakers from German Chancellor Angela Merkel to UK Prime Minister Theresa May have made it clear they want to phase out coal within the next decade, slashing greenhouse gases.

It’s also a good sign for the global effort to rein in climate change, showing that market mechanisms and government policy can persuade industry to step away from fossil fuels in a way that doesn’t create turmoil in the broader economy. Europe’s carbon market is the biggest of more than 45 systems working worldwide and a model being tried everywhere from China to Mexico and parts of the US.

“We are very much in favor of the European Emissions Trading System,” said Klaus Schaefer, chief executive officer of the German power generator Uniper SE. “In order to deliver the CO2 reductions that we all agreed to in Europe, you will have to see higher prices.”

Carbon trading wasn’t an immediate success. Europe’s permits surged to more than €29 a ton in 2006 and 2008, only to plunge more than 90 per cent after the financial crisis hobbled industry and helped create a surplus of the pollution rights. That glut took policymakers years to mop up, culminating in an agreement that got final approval only last month.

Utilities like Uniper will feel the brunt of the impact of higher carbon prices – governments cut off the supply of free permits to most power generators while doling out allocations for industries like steelmakers. EU emission allowances are the best performing energy commodity this year, according to a report by Bloomberg New Energy Finance.

Higher carbon prices drive up the cost of using hard coal and lignite to run power plants. It’s one of the mechanisms the 28-nation European Union is using to move industry away from the most polluting fuels and reaching the goals for curbing climate change set out in the 2015 Paris Agreement.

“The original intention to deliver emissions reductions at least cost has been replaced by a focus on achieving a certain carbon price,” Bulleid said. “There are a number of overlapping policies in this area muddying investment signals. Overseas competitors are not facing the same policy costs.”

“The tendency of EU and national policymakers to seek to increase the price of emissions certificates, even though the emissions cap is adhered to, significantly reduces market predictability and makes Europe a less attractive region to invest,” said a spokesperson for Dow Chemical Co., which has plants in Belgium and Germany as well as a research facility in Switzerland.

Even so, the broader response of business to higher carbon prices has been surprisingly muted – and even supportive. Britain’s main business lobby group, the CBI, believes “a strong European carbon price has the best potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the lowest-cost way,” according to Michelle Hubert, head of energy and climate at the London-based group.