Keynotes hse india

Ladder: Portable ladders are not recommended for heights above 4m. They should be placed at an angle of approximately 75 0 from the horizontal. Both top and bottom should be secured to prevent displacement, and the ladder rails should be extended at least 1 m above the top landing. Fixed ladders should be provided for flights above 4 m. Fixed ladder should have landings of minimum 600 mm extent at intervals not greater than 6.0 m. The width of ladder shall not be less than 300 mm and the rungs shall be spaced not more than 300 mm.

Ramps or Gangways: Where used, they should be built to provide strength equal to that specified for scaffold structures and should not unduly rag under the corresponding dead or moving loads. If the ramp or runway is 1.5 m or more above the ground or floor level, by standard railings and toe boards the open sides should be protected.


The slope of the ramp shall not exceed 2 in 3. Where the slope is more than 1 in 4, proper foot holds shall be provided by means of stepping laths of minimum size 50 X 30mm at intervals not exceeding 45 cm.

2. Protection Under Scaffolds – Where persons are required to work or pass underneath (for example, building entrances or pathways,) a scaffold upon which men are working, a screen or canopy shall be provided for their protection from falling objects. Such screen should extend to a distance at least one meter beyond the edge of the scaffold above the passage to catch any material which may fall. For ordinary conditions a net with a mesh size of 25 mm.

Electrical Hazards: Care shall be taken to see that no uninsulated electric wire exists within 3 m of the working platform, gangways, runs, etc of the scaffold. While carrying bars, rods or pipes of any kind conducting material of 1ength greater than 3 m, in the vicinity of electric wires, special care shall be taken that these do not touch the electric wires.

Best Practice — There is no single best practice because best is neither best for everyone nor for all times. Every organization is different in some way— different missions, cultures, environments and technologies. What is meant by best are those practices that have been shown to produce superior results: selected by a systematic process, and judged as exemplary, good or successfully demonstrated. Best practices are then adapted to fit a particular organization.

Functional — Process benchmarking that compares a particular business benchmarking function at two or more companies. It is a process of comparison of specific functions like distribution, logistics, etc, with best in class organizations which are not in the same industry. Teams from process areas usually conduct it. Resource requirement is high.

Generic Benchmarking — Process benchmarking that compares a particular business function or process at two or more companies independent of their industries. It is similar to functional benchmarking except that it focuses on comparison of generic business processes of other companies who are judged to have innovative processes. It is the latest evolutionary stage of benchmarking.

Co-operative and Collaborative Benchmarking — It is most widely used type of benchmarking because it is relatively easy to practice. It is a more accommodating way of getting information. In co-operative benchmarking information flows one way. In collaborative benchmarking information is shared between groups of firms. Not all collaborative efforts are considered benchmarking. Data sharing results do not focus on the process but only on the end results, while benchmarking focuses on the processes of the organizations.

Process — A series of inter related activities that convert input into results (outputs); processes consume resources and require standards for repeatable performance; proce$ses respond to control systems that direct the quality, rate, and cost of performance. It can also be seen as a repeatable sequence of steps used to transform an input into an output that has value to an internal or external customer.

Strategic Benchmarking — A systematic business process for evaluating alternatives, implementing strategies, and improving performance by understanding and adapting successful strategies from external partners who participate in an on-going strategic alliance. Strategic benchmarking deals with top management. It deals with long-term results. It focuses on how companies compete. It involves analysis of world class companies in noncompetitive industries to determine opportunities for strategic change initiatives in core business processes. Usually is performed by trained benchmarking personnel. Resource requirement is medium-low.

World Class – Leading performance in a process independent of industry, function, or location in world. World class manufacturers are those that demonstrate industry best practice, to achieve this, companies should attempt to be best in the field at each of the competitive priorities (quality, price, delivery speed, reliability and flexibility). Organizations should therefore aim to maximize performance in these areas in order to maximize competitiveness. However, as resources are unlikely to allow improvement in all areas, organizations should concentrate on maintaining performance in qualifying factors and improving competitive edge factors. The priorities will change over time and must therefore be reviewed.

Days of Disablement (Lost Time) – In the case of disablement of a temporary nature, the number of days on which the injured person was partially disabled as defined in Partial Disablement. In the case of death or disablement of a permanent nature whether it be partial or total disablement as defined in 2.7 and 2.8 man-days lost means the charges in days of earning capacity lost due to such permanent disability or death as specified in Appendix B.

Partial Disablement – This is of two types: disablement of a temporary nature which reduces the earning capacity of an employed person in any employment in which he was engaged at the time of the accident resulting in the disablement; and disablement of a permanent nature, which reduces his earning capacity in every employment which he was capable of undertaking at the time.

Total Disablement – Disablement, whether of a temporary or permanent nature, which incapacitates a workman for all work which he was capable of performing at the time of the accident resulting in such disablement, provided that permanent total disablement shall be deemed to result from every type of injury specified in Part A of Appendix A or from any combination of injuries specified in Part B of Appendix A where the aggregate percentage of the loss of earning capacity, as specified in that part against those injuries, amounts to one hundred percent.

Man-hours worked shall be calculated from the pay roll or time clock recorded including overtime. When this is not feasible, the same shall be estimated by multiplying the total man-days worked for the period covered by the number of hours worked per day. The total number of man-days for a period is the sum of the number of men at work on each day of the period. If the daily hours vary from department to department separate estimates shall be made for each department and the result added together. When actual man-hours are not used, the basis on which the estimates are made shall be indicated.