Sdl2 ttf rendering fonts and texts – free pascal meets sdl

A font represents the style how the letters of a word or sentence appear (e.g. Arial, New Times Roman, and so on). These style informations are saved in so-called font files. There are different standards how to save the font into a file, but the most important font file standard is the True Type Font standard, thus the name SDL2_ ttf. SDL2_ttf is capable to work with TrueType fonts. The typical file extension of TrueType font files is “.ttf”. FreeType 2.0 is no font file standard but a software library to render TrueType font files. Fonts in Applications

In the last chapters you have heard a lot about the creation of textures from image files and how to manipulate and draw to them. But there is nearly no application out there where you go out without some text messages.

Of course, you could print some text to an image and load this image to your application to introduce text to it. But what if you like to implement a chat feature to your application where text messages are created dynamically? Or you like the user to insert his name for a highscore list? There are thousands of other circumstances where you need dynamically generated texts. The SDL2_ttf Unit

Download the corresponding SDL2_ttf package depending on your system (32 bit or 64 bit) and extract the zip file. You will end up with a SDL2_ttf.dll and two more dlls (zlib1.dll, libfreetype-6.dll) which are necessary for support of compression and FreeType routines. Copy all these files to your system folder, e.g. for Windows XP or Windows 8.1 32 bit C:\WINDOWS\system32\. If you are not sure about your system folder, you should copy all these files into the same folder where the source code file (.pas or .pp) of your SDL 2.0 program is.

Before jumping right into the code, let’s discuss the two concepts of SDL 2.0 of saving images in memory again. We prefer to work with textures because they have all the advantages we discussed in prior chapters, especially in Chapter – Surfaces and Textures. Anyway, in SDL2_ttf there are several functions to load a text as a surface (details later). Hence we need to convert the surface into a texture as known. Look at the following diagram to understand the way we need to go: Create a surface with a given text and create a texture from it. This can be rendered as known to the screen.

So according to the diagram the way to go is as follows, if you have a text in mind (left quadrat in diagram), first create a SDL_Surface by using one of the functions SDL2_ttf provides (lower path to quad at the bottom in the diagram). Next you convert this SDL_Surface into a SDL_Texture by the function SDL_CreateTextureFromSurface (go straight from the buttom quad to the upper quad in the diagram). Finally render the text as you like to the screen.

a font is prepared to be used. The first parameter “_file” asks for the absolute file path of the font. The parameter “ptsize” asks for an integer value which determines the size of the font. The larger the value, the larger the letters will appear finally (just as known from text editors). Anyway, if you choose too large size the largeste size will be chosen. Styling the text in SDL 2.0

further shaping of the appearence of the text can be performed. All the procedures need to know as first argument to which font they should be applied, so “ttfFont” in our case. Then the style can be set by the constants shown in the following table, which are kind of self-explanatory. By OR’ing the style constants you can even combine them as shown in the example code. The text shall be in italics and underlined.

The hinting is set similar to the style by pre-defined constants shown in the following table. The hinting setting influences the appearance of the letters and text. In general it should lead to sharper letters, anyway, which setting is best for a certain situation and display device may differ. So if you are unsure what setting to use you should choose TTF_HINTING_NORMAL. If you don’t call this procedure this setting is the default anyway.

The record has four fields. For additive color mixing you often have a red share, a green share and a blue share (RGB triple). These three fundamental colors are capable of generating any other color by mixing in the respective proportions. E.g. 100% red and 0% green and 0% blue will lead to red. But 100% red, 100% green and 0% blue will lead to yellow. If all three colours are 100% you will get white. If all of them are 0% you will get black. You may notice the variable type UInt8 which means 8bit unsigned integer. From this follows that the values can range between 0 and 255 where 0 equals 0% and 255 equals 100% of the corresponding color. So 256 3 = 16,777,216 individual colors can be created.

Usually String variables are used in Pascal programming language, so why here we have a PAnsiChar? Well, since SDL is written in C/C++, and there typically null-terminated strings of characters are used to store and handle text, this is kept for better compatibility and easier translation of SDL 2.0 for Pascal compilers. In principle it is no big deal to use PAnsiChar instead of String, even though Pascal programmers prefer String variables .

Those which have the suffix “Solid” are very fast created but their quality is low. Use them when rendering fast changing text (e.g. the score of a pinball simulation). The second group has the suffix “Shaded”. They are slower rendered and have a background color but have much better quality. The last group of functions have the suffix “Blended”. They are of high quality but slow to be rendered. Use them for more static text which doesn’t change a lot.

For each group of quality and functions you find “Text”, “UTF8”, “UNICODE” and “Glyph” in the encoding part of the functions name right after “TTF_Render”. “Text”, “UTF8” and “UNICODE” are three different types of encoding of the text. “Text” corresponds to Latin1 encoding, “UTF8” to UTF-8 encoding and “UNICODE” to Unicode encoding. Which type to choose depends on what type of characters (e.g. Cyrillic letters, Latin characters, Chinese characters) you are going to use. If you are unsure which of these functions to use, go with the “UNICODE” version.

Finally I’d like to mention a special function which is just available in high quality “Blended” mode. It has the suffix “_Blended_Wrapped”. Additional to the usual parameters there is a parameter wrapLength of type UInt32 (32 bit unsigned integer). Here you can have an integer value which determines the amount of pixels until the text will be word-wrapped. So in our case with a width of the window of 500 pixels the setting of wrapLength to 250 for example would result in a word-wrap when a word would exceed 250 pixels.